Contribution: vibrant wheat flavor; improved head/foam retention
Styles: traditional in witbiers and lambics
Examples: 3 Fonteinen Oude Geuze, Cantillon Gueuze, Hitachino Nest White Ale, La Cumbre Cerro Blanco, Moonlight Sour Mash Wheat, Ommegang Witte
Contribution: bitter, roasted character; improved head/foam retention; darker color
Styles: traditional in dry stouts, and common in many darker styles
Examples: Avery Out of Bounds Stout, Guinness Draught, North Coast Old No. 38 Stout, Porterhouse Wrasslers XXXX Stout
Contribution: silky mouthfeel; heightened creaminess and body
Styles: traditional in oatmeal stouts; also found in various stouts and porters
Examples: Cigar City Maduro Oatmeal Brown Ale, Moonlight Old Combine 4-Grain Lager, Rogue Shakespeare Stout, Samuel Smith Oatmeal Stout, Southern Tier Oat
Forms: sucrose (table sugar), dextrose (corn sugar), brown sugar, invert sugar, molasses, maple syrup, caramel, Belgian candi sugar and syrup, treacle, jaggery, piloncillo, etc.
Contribution: lighter or darker color; can boost alcohol, increase dryness (readily fermented by yeast), and impart a wide range of flavors and aromas depending upon the type
Styles: traditional in many stronger Belgian ales (everything from white sugar to dark syrups); often found in milds, bitters, cream ales, etc., as well as a wide range of higher-alcohol beers
Examples: Bear Republic Big Bear Black Stout, Bear Republic Racer 5, The Bruery Autumn Maple, Kuhnhenn Extraneous Ale, Russian River Pliny the Elder, Russian River Damnation, Three Floyds Dark Lord Russian Imperial Stout, Westmalle Dubbel, Westmalle Tripel
Contribution: lightens body and color (compared to malted barley); can add some sweetish corn flavor and aroma
Styles: traditional in many contemporary American lagers, pre-Prohibition pilsners, cream ales, Kentucky commons, and Flanders red ales; often found in bitters, Mexican-style lagers, etc.
Examples: Bear Republic El Oso Lager, Cigar City Batch #69 Double Cream Ale, Cigar City Guava Grove, Craftsman 1903 Lager, Ithaca Brute, Rodenbach Grand Cru, Thunderhead Cornstalker Dark Wheat
Contribution: similar to corn, but drier effect overall; very light flavor contributions
Styles: traditional in many American and Japanese light lagers
Examples: Bear Republic Racer X, The Bruery Humulus Rice, The Bruery Trade Winds Tripel, Great Divide Samurai, Hitachino Nest Red Rice Ale, Kuhnhenn Classic American Lager, Kuhnhenn DR (“Double Rice”) IPA
Contribution: can increase dryness (fruit sugars can be readily fermented by yeast) and impart a wide range of flavors, aromas, and colors
Styles: traditional in fruit lambics and a wide range of fruit beers
Examples: 3 Fonteinen Schaerbeekse Kriek, Cantillon Blåbær Lambik, New Glarus Raspberry Tart, New Glarus Wisconsin Belgian Red, Selins Grove The Phoenix Kriek, Shorts Peaches & Crème
Include: rye (unmalted), honey, spelt, sorghum, millet, buckwheat, pumpkin, spruce tips, sweet potatoes, peas, beets, kambocha squash, kamut, rhubarb, and chocolate.